Passive Earth Pressure
Passive earth pressure is the highest limiting lateral pressure developed at the onset of shear failure by wall moving (penetrating) in the direction opposite to the direction of acting earth pressure (minimal wall rotation necessary for the evolution of passive earth pressure is about 10 mrad, i.e. 10 mm/m of the wall height). In most expressions used to compute the passive earth pressure the sign convention is assumed such that the usual values of δ corresponding to vertical direction of the friction resultant are negative. The program, however, assumes these values to be positive. A seldom variant with friction acting upwards is not considered in the program.
The following theories and approaches are implemented for the computation of passive earth pressure assuming effective stress state:
The program also allows for running the analysis in.